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The emergence of novel psychoactive chemicals continues to pose a significant public health threat. Synthetic cathinones, commonly known as legal highs, research compounds, or bath salts, are -keto amphetamine analogues. Because of their high psychostimulant and empathogenic properties, these substances have become a popular alternative to other illicit drugs of abuse including cocaine, MDMA, and methamphetamine. Pyrovalerone cathinones (a-pyrrolidinophenones), such as MDPV, belong to a separate class of designer cathinones. Following its listing as an unlawful product, “second generation” chemicals such as -PVP, which has a chemical structure that is extremely similar to MDPV, were produced.

Clinical effects of these compounds are individual, dose- and route of administration-dependent. Both of them have been involved in an increased number of, not only acute intoxications but also fatalities over the past few years, raising concerns in the medical field. In this paper, we will review the available data regarding the use and effects of MDPV and α-PVP in humans in order to highlight their impact on public health. Health actors and general population need to be clearly informed of potential risks and consequences of these 2 novel psychoactive substances spread and use. The literature search conducted led to the identification of potentially 83 relevant articles. All articles were screened from their abstracts to determine their relevance in the framework of the current review. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled ‘Designer Drugs and Legal Highs.’

Individual responses to these drugs are dosage and method of administration dependant. Over the last few years, both of them have been engaged in an increased incidence of not just acute intoxications but also fatalities, prompting medical worries. We will review the available evidence on the use and effects of MDPV and -PVP in people in this paper to emphasize their public health implications. The general public and health actors must be fully informed about the hazards and repercussions of the spread and use of these two novel psychoactive drugs. After doing a literature search, 83 potentially relevant publications were found. To establish their relevance in the context of the current study, all articles were reviewed based on their abstracts.

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